- The Power of Crowds.
The Internet allows large, dispersed groups to contribute to a project.
- Be a Martian: Searching NASA Mars images and marking features.
- Foldit: A game to fold complex protein molecules.
Solved a decade-old problem in three weeks.
- Funding. A proposal is posted and the public can send support.
- Charitable and non-profit projects. Solicit money and other
- Business projects.
- Solicit pre-orders, perhaps at a discount or with a premium.
- Soliciting small investments from the general public has
recently been legalized.
- Netiquette: Proper behavior on-line.
- Using email.
- Problems and properties.
- Expressing emotion.
No voice tone or facial expression to moderate your words.
- Emphasis. _this_ not THIS
- Slow-paced compared to speaking.
- Ambiguity seems to be more of a problem.
- Flame wars. Email is too fast for second thoughts.
- Email Netiquette
- One topic at a time.
- Include some context; let receiver know what you're talking about.
- Use automated replies.
- Clear a backlog in reverse order.
- Don't forward w/o permission.
- Use emoticons to communicate intents.
- Expect the unexpected.
- Maybe it's a joke.
- Sometimes it breaks.
- Most computers resist password guessing.
- Usually stored encrypted.
- When set, encrypted version is stored.
- Login encrypts what you type and compares.
- Administrator cannot look up your forgotten password.
- Nor can a hacker steal it.
- Good passwords.
- Select passwords from some area of interest.
- Choose a memorable phrase.
- Twist it with digits and puns.
- Use non-alphanumeric characters if the system permits.
- Change occasionally.
- Don't repeat passwords.
- Some matter more than others.
- Unsolicited email
Mail is cheap to send; don't need a high response rate.
- Spam filters. Set to desired sensitivity.
- Email scams.
- Advance fee fraud.
- One form of intellectual property. Others:
- Trade secrets.
- A copyright owner has exclusive right to
- Make copies.
- Create a derivative.
- Distribute or publish.
- Publicly perform or display.
- To use someone else's copyrighted work in any of those ways,
you need permission
- Generally called a license.
- May (and usually does) come with conditions.
- Copyright and computer technology.
- Massive violation becomes practical.
- Pirating a paper book doesn't pay; pirating electronic media does.
- Internet transfers are easy and quickly multiply.
- Web pages are easily copied and pasted.
- Consumers need copyright licenses.
- A publisher makes copies of a book, needing a license.
- A consumer buys the book, which is not copying.
- A song download is a copy.
- Playing a song involves copying from disk to memory.
- Technology can be used to attempt enforcement of license restrictions.
- Digital Rights Management (DRM).
- Tries to prevent copying (including format conversion) and other
uses that might violate the copyright owner's rights.
- Basic method
- Content is encrypted.
- Approved devices contain decryption keys. They will only
decrypt the content for approved purposes.
- Manufacturers of unapproved devices are not allowed keys.
Sometimes authorization is easy and common, sometimes it is
- Most web-based video players will not let you record the stream.
- Commercial DVDs are encrypted. No authorized
device or program will copy the DVD.
- Hi-def disks use a much more complicated encryption system.
- There have been some attempts to make CDs that can't be copied;
these have failed since the CD format was not designed
- Some illegal uses are prevented or discouraged.
- Some legal uses may be also prevented:
The DRM rules need not follow the law.
- Reduced device competition when manufacturing permission is
- The added complexity makes the whole system more likely to break.
- In the US, it is illegal circumvent the DRM (“break in.”).
- Software Licenses.
- Commercial software
- Pay for it.
- Use the software, usually on one computer.
- May not sell or give away the software.
- Get it for free.
- May distribute copies.
- After some period of time, you are asked or required to pay.
- No charge, ever.
- May do pretty much whatever you want with it,
except convert it to a commercial license.
- Quite common on servers.
- Firefox browser is a leading desktop example.
- Public domain.
- Strictly speaking, there is very little of this.
- Copyright is automatic, but the author may renounce it.
- No software is old enough for the copyright to have expired.
- Web content.
- If it's online
- You can presumably browse to it.
- Your browser will still have to make a copy in order to display
- Posting something on a public web site would seem to imply
giving permission to view it with a browser.
- You can link to it. (Does not make a copy.)
- You cannot make (other) copies of it or reuse it without permission.
- A site may have posted a general copyright policy.
- You can always ask.
- Facts are not copyrightable.
- Ideas are not copyrightable, only the particular expression.
- Enforcement is generally by suit, or thread of a suit.
- Creative Commons
- Provides several licenses you may use for your content.
- You may choose from various levels of permissiveness.
- Fair use
- You may use copyrighted materials without permission
under some fairly vague rules.
- What is the nature and purpose of your use? Are you
Advancing knowledge, or just swiping?
- Education and research purposes are better.
- Reviews and satires are favored as free speech matters.
- The nature of the copyrighted work. Seems to favor copying from
factual works rather than fiction.
- How much are you copying? Less is better.
- How much damage will you do to the market for the original work?
Better not be much.
- Fair use is fairly useless because you can't usually know if it
applies until after the four-bazillion-dollar trial, and the
six-gajillion-dollar judgment if the answer is “no.”
- Plagiarism is not infringement, and infringement is not plagiarism.
- Violating copyright is infringement: using copyrighted material
without permission. It's illegal.
- Representing someone else's work as your own is plagiarism.
- It's not necessarily illegal, but is usually breaking some kind of
- Serious offense in academia.
- Likewise journalism, or most paid writing work.
- May be fraud in circumstances where folks
spend or invest based your assertion.
- Citing your source will avoid plagiarism, but not
infringement. For that, you need permission.
- Having permission or using public-domain sources will avoid
infringement, but not plagiarism.
For that, cite your source.