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Plain C I/O
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C++ has two standard I/O systems. The iostreams library was created for C++, and uses features essential to that language. The stdio library was created for plain C, and, like the rest of C remains. So far, we have limited ourselves to iostreams, which is much superior in most respects. However, if you ever have a need to write programs in pure plain C, you'll have know something about stdio.

The standard streams are stdin, stdout and stderr, which are defined as FILE *. The primary calls are printf for output and scanf for reading, but there are many others.