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Standard Containers
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Reading: Chapter 25

The C++ standard libraries include several very useful standard container classes. Containers are just data structures which hold other things, an they are very useful. The structures are vector, deque (both array-like structures of variable size), list (which is doubly-linked), set, multiset, map and multipmap. The last four allow fast search based on a key, and they are generally implemented using a tree structure.

The 2011 standard added unordered_set, unordered_multiset, unordered_map and unordered_multimap. These are similar in behavior to the existing structures, but based on hashing rather than a tree.

Associated with each container is an appropriate iterator class which allows a program to step through the contents of the container. It is designed to behave much like a pointer, which can be initialized to the first item and incremented in a loop to step through the whole array.

Whatever<i> c;
. . .
for(Whatever<i>::iterator i = c.begin(); i != c.end(); ++i) {
        // Use *i to access the current item.