The C and C++ languages are governed by standards issued by industry committees.
Any particular compiler may implement a standard well or poorly.
Any particular compiler may target a recent or an older standard.
The official C++ standards were issued in 1998, 2003, and 2011. Much of the 2011 standard is implemented in common compilers, but not all. A 2014 standard is scheduled for later this year; it's listed as a minor standard, tweaking some things from 2011.
The latest GNU C++ compiler (used with Code::Blocks unless you explicitly change it), implements most of the 2011 standard, but compiles to the 2003 standard unless you explicitly ask for the newer one.
The first plain C standard was ratified in 1989 and published 1990. The second was published in 1999, with official corrections in 2001, 2004 and 2007. The most recent issued in 2011.
C is generally a subset of C++. Exceptions are typically rare cases that will not concern us in this course.