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Boolean Operations
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The C language does not have a boolean type. Instead, it uses integer under the following general rules:

  1. An operation which requires a boolean value takes an integer and treats zero as false and any other value as true.

  2. An operation which produces a boolean value generates 1 or 0 for true and false.

The C++ committee eventually added a boolean type to C++ (and called it bool, just to keep you from spelling right the first time). To maintain compatibility with C, it converts freely to and from integer under similar rules. Specifically:

  1. When an integer is used in a boolean context, it is converted under similar rules: zero becomes false, and nonzero becomes true.

  2. When a bool is used in an int context, it is converted to 1 or 0, for true or false.
The result is very similar behavior in either dialect, produced from different formal type rules.

Relational Operators

==       !=       <       <=       >       >=

C: Result is 1 or 0.

C++: Result is true or false.

Logical Operators

&&       ||

In C: expect integer values, treating zero as false and non-zero as true. Produce 1 or 0.

In C++: expect boolean values. If integer(s) are present, convert to bool using the rule that zero converts to false, nonzero converts to true. Produce true or false.

Short circuit
if(n != 0 && sum / n > 1.0) ...

Conditional Operator

expr_test ? expr_true : expr_false

When you want an if, but need an expression.

max = a < b ? b : a;

printf("Max is ", a < b ? b : a);

Reading: Ch.6
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