Introduction And Overview
This is information from Chapter 1 of your text, with some additional material.
  1. Web Pages.
    1. The Internet started to have users (not just its creators) during the 1980s.
      1. This was oriented to remote use of a computer, and download of specific files by name.
      2. Very text-oriented; no WWW yet.
    2. Tim Berners-Lee invented the basic mechanisms of the World-Wide-Web at CERN.
      1. Wanted a convenient way to use the Internet to share the lastest physics research results.
      2. Created the HTML language to write pages, and the HTTP network protocol to transfer them.
      3. Early web was a way to link static documents (with figures).
    3. Initial model
      1. Client-server
        1. Client sends a request for a particular URL.
        2. The URL refers to a particular file on the server.
        3. Server responds, with the file contents or error indication.
      2. Pages are stored on the server machine. Server copies them out.
      3. Interaction is clicking on links.
    4. Common Gateway Interface (CGI). (Not to be confused with the “Computer-Generated Imagery” in your favorite movie.)
      1. The earliest form of dynamic web page.
      2. The file the URL refers to is a program instead of text.
      3. The program is run, and the output is sent to the browser.
      4. Usually, the output is HTML.
      5. Can use any programming language supported by the server system.
    5. Server-side programming.
      1. Similar to CGI, but uses languages specialized to generate HTML.
      2. There are others, but we will use a popular language called PHP.
    6. Client-side programming: Javascript.
      1. Language that runs the browser.
      2. More responsive, since it doesn't need to talk to the server in order to respond.
    7. Server Side Client Side
    8. Ajax.
      1. Let the Javascript interact directly with the server.
      2. Modify the page with server data, but no full page markup required. Google Maps.
  2. Changes in HTML
    1. The WWW was an instant hit.
    2. Randomly expanded for some years.
      1. Netscape, the first commercial browser, was very successful.
      2. Microsoft responded by creating Internet Explorer.
      3. Period of not-always-healthy competition known as the browser wars.
      4. Divergence of browsers made it hard to know how to write your page.
      5. Eventual convergence on industry standards.
    3. Current standard known as HTML 5.
  3. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
    1. A language for describing the appearance of a page.
    2. CSS is embedded inside HTML.
    3. Helps make sure pages look the same on any browser.
  4. MySQL
    1. MySQL is a popular database system discussed in the text.
    2. It's a worthy topic, but I don't expect we'll have time to cover it.
  5. The Apache Web Server.
    1. The server is the program that receives requests and returns pages. Apache is one such server.
    2. Apache is the most popular webserver by number of installations, but others are ahead of it by other measures.
Note: For this class, we'll want to use a modern web browser, such as Chrome, Firefox, or Opera. Edge, but not IE.