This is information from Chapter 1 of your text, with some
- Web Pages.
- The Internet started to have users (not just its creators)
during the 1980s.
- This was oriented to remote use of a computer, and download of specific
files by name.
- Very text-oriented; no WWW yet.
- Tim Berners-Lee invented the basic mechanisms of the World-Wide-Web
- Wanted a convenient way to use the Internet to share the lastest
physics research results.
- Created the HTML language to write pages, and the HTTP network
protocol to transfer them.
- Early web was a way to link static documents (with figures).
- Initial model
- Client sends a request for a particular URL.
- The URL refers to a particular file on the server.
- Server responds, with the file contents or error indication.
- Pages are stored on the server machine. Server copies them out.
- Interaction is clicking on links.
- Common Gateway Interface (CGI). (Not to be confused with the
“Computer-Generated Imagery” in your favorite movie.)
- The earliest form of dynamic web page.
- The file the URL refers to is a program instead of text.
- The program is run, and the output is sent to the browser.
- Usually, the output is HTML.
- Can use any programming language supported by the server system.
- Server-side programming.
- Similar to CGI, but uses languages specialized to generate HTML.
- There are others, but we will use a popular language called PHP.
- Language that runs the browser.
- More responsive, since it doesn't need to talk to the server
in order to respond.
- Server Side
- Modify the page with server data, but no full page markup
required. Google Maps.
- Changes in HTML
- The WWW was an instant hit.
- Randomly expanded for some years.
- Netscape, the first commercial browser, was very successful.
- Microsoft responded by creating Internet Explorer.
- Period of not-always-healthy competition known as the browser wars.
- Divergence of browsers made it hard to know how to write your page.
- Eventual convergence on industry standards.
- Current standard known as HTML 5.
- Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).
- A language for describing the appearance of a page.
- CSS is embedded inside HTML.
- Helps make sure pages look the same on any browser.
- MySQL is a popular database system discussed in the text.
- It's a worthy topic, but I don't expect we'll have time to cover it.
- The Apache Web Server.
- The server is the program that receives requests and returns pages.
Apache is one such server.
- Apache is the most popular webserver by number of installations,
but others are ahead of it by other
Note: For this class, we'll want to use a modern web browser, such as
Chrome, Firefox, or Opera. Edge, but not IE.